Arab Conquest Of Sindh History Of India / Turkish Invaders-In this article we published the detailed early medieval history of India, in which we cover how Arabians come to India and looted the India by attacks many times on the monuments and heritages. Read every paragraph of this article carefully to know that how Arabian Invaders looted India and what affects it does on India.
Arab Conquest Of Sindh
- As early as AD 637 Arabs started sending expeditions to the Western coast of India. In the opening years of the AD 8th Century, the king of Ceylon had sent some ships to the Khafila (Caliph) Walid.
- These hips was plundered by pirates near Debal. A port of Sindh.
- At that time, one Dahir, a Hindu Raja, ruled over Sindh. Al-Hajjaj, the governor of Basra, demanded compensation, but Dahir refused to pay it. Hajjaj sent an expedition against Dahir. After two expeditions failed, in AD 712, he sent another expedition, this time under his nephew and son-in-law, Mohammad bin-Qasim.
- Mohammad-bin-Qasim in a very short time conquered Debal by slaying Dahir. He then conquered Brahmanabad. After this he conquered Multan.
- This practically made him the ruler of the whole of Sindh. But his brilliant career came to a sad end when he was put to death by the Caliph.
- Sindh was under the Arabs for 200 years. An efficient administration was provided by them. Sindh was divided into a number of districts (Iqtas) which were made over to the Arab military officers on condition of military service.
Why Arab’s Failed to Build a Permanent Empire in India
|• The conquest of Sindh by the Arabs was, however, a triumph without any results. Not only did they fail to extend their dominions further, they could not even retain their hold on Sindh. The reasons were. Imprisonment of Mohammad-bin- Qasim: It proved to be a great blow to the Sindh administration.|
• New Khalifa’s attitude towards Sindh :- The new Khalifa did not viz any material gain from the desert land of Sindh and hence, put a break on military help to Sindh.
• Fight over Khilafat (Caliphate) :- As a result of breaking out of a mutual struggle for occupying the seat of Khilafat, the Arab attention was diverted from Sindh.
• Feeling of cultural inferiority among the Arabs :- The Arabs had a feeling of inferiority complex in the face of India’s cultural advancement. This dampened the spirits of the Arabs for further military occupation.
• Distance from Baghdad :- Long distance between Sindh and Baghdad (The ultimate source of power for Sindh administration under the Arabs) and lack of communication and transport did not encourage further battles.
• Bravery and heroism of Indian rulers :- At that time provinces in India were being ruled by various Rajput dynasties, who were famous for their bravery and heroism. This discouraged the Arabs from engaging in wars with the Indian rulers.
The Arabs followed a tolerant religious policy. Those who paid the poll-tax or Jaziya was exempted from embracing Islam and were known as Zimmis.
Impact of Arab Rule in Sindh
Politically, the Arabs Sindh conquest is considered insignificant even from the point of view of growth of Islam in India. Their victory did not leave any impact on the monarchical character of Indian Polity. However, it succeeded in converting the Sindh population to Islam, albeit on a very limited and temporary scale.
The Arabs did not make any permanent impact on Indian social system. However, Its first impact was that it laid the foundation of Islam in India. The formal slavery system introduced into India by the Arabs. The earliest Muslim settlements in India was establish during Arab rule.
|• Sanskrit works on astronomy and medicine were translated into Arabic. The Quran was translated into Sindhi. Arab life was adjusted to Sindhi pattern.|
• Mohammed-Bin-Qasim was first person to impose Jaziya in India
• Chachnama written by some unknown person provides in formation about Arab Conquest of sindh although some experts clain that chachnama was written by Ali Ahmed. 1628
• Arabic translation of Panchtantra is known as kalilah-Wa-Dimna. Brahmgupta’s Khanda-Khandvak and Brahmsiddhanta were also translated in Arabic.
• Abu Mashar studied Astrology in Banaras.
The Arab rule in Sindh strengthened Arab trade and encouraged more Arabs to settle down on the East coast. The Sindhi tanners were trained in the art of tanning soft leather by the Arab leather workers. As a result of this, Sindhi leather fetched a higher price in foreign markets. Modern History Of India
- An adventurer Alptigin founded the Principality of Ghazni in AD 962. After his death in 977 his slave and son-in-law, Subuktigin, succeeded him. His policy of conquest brought him in conflict with the Shaiya Dynasty.
- He defeated its ruler, Jaipal, twice and thus extended the kingdom beyond the Indus after a reign of 20 years, Subuktigin died in 997 and was succeeded by his son Mahmud, a brilliant general and a mighty conqueror.
- He led as many as 17 expeditions into India during the years 1000-1206.
- Out of these, the one against the temple of Somnath in AD 1025 was the most important as it gave Mahmud a vast treasure.
- For the glory of Islam Mahmud posed as a great ‘But-Shikan’ or destroyer on the images. He patronized 3 person, contemporary to him. Firdausi (court poet), Alberuni (scholar), Utbi (court historian). Alberuni wrote Kitab-ul-Hind.
The Attacks / Campaigns of Mahmud of Ghazni /Mahmud Ghajanavi in India
AD 1000 :- Hindushahi kingdom attack : border areas and some strategic forts occupied.
AD 1001-02 :- Peshawar and Waihind attacked Jaipal taken captive but released on payment of ransom.
AD 1004-05 :- Attack at the fort of Bhatiya (or Bhatia) situated on the trade route. from the Khyber pass to Multan. It’s ruler Baji and Biji Rai gave a heroic fight but he was defeated. Instead of falling into the hands of invader he saved his honour by committing suicide.
AD 1006 :- Multan attack, It’s ruler Fateh Daud soughted help from Hindushahi Anandpal, both were defeated.
AD 1006-07 :- Biji Rai of Behra defeated. Behra handed over to Sukhpal, who converted to Islam. Later, Gazni repudiated Islam and dismissed and taken prisoner.
AD 1008-09 :- Second battle of Waihind :- Nagarkot also plundered the rulers of Ujjain, Gwalior, Kalinjar, Kannauj, Delhi and Ajmer.
AD 1009-10 :- Narayanpur near Alwar (Rajasthan) was attacked, ruler of narayanpur was defeated and had to run away with his entire treasury.
AD 1010-11 :- Multan annexed King David, who had failed to act as a loyal ally and reverted to old pagan practices, was taken prisoner and deposed . Mahmud appointed a Turkish military officer as governor of Multan.
AD 1011- 12 :- Thaneshwar attacked
AD 1013-14 :- Nandanah occupied
AD 1015-16 :- Kashmir campaign proves abortive
AD 1018-19 :- Kannauj plundered
AD 1020-21 :- Kalinjar invaded
AD 1021-22 :- Lahore invaded
AD 1025-26 :- Plunder at Somnath
AD 1027 :- Punitive campaign against Jats of Indus region
Decline of Ghazni Rule in India
- Little or no attention was paid to internal strengthening and organisation of the empire.
- Excess use of military power in external security. Mahmud Ghazni had incompetent successors.
- Lack of definite and universal law relating to succession to throne resulted in constant fight among the successors of Mahmud.
- Ala-ud-din Hussain, a Gaud King, attacked Ghazni in 1155. The last ruler of Ghazni was ” Khusrau Malik” who had killed by Mohammad Ghur in 1192.
- There was a lack of control over the army.
- There was no new source of income.
- Mahmud Ghazni’s invasion had some significances for Indian history.
- It exposed India’s military weakness.
- It exposed the political disunity of India. It weakened the economic condition of India.
Mohammad of Ghur / Muhammad Ghori
Shiihab-ud-din (later Moiz-ud-din Mohammad, or Mohammad of Ghur) was a great conqueror. After setting up his government in Ghazni (AD 1173), he directed his expeditions farther towards India.
Campaigns Of Muhammad Ghori
- In AD 1175, he captured The Multan and then Sindh, after three years later, Ghori tried to penetrate into Gujarat but he found that the local Rajputs was too strong for him, Ghori was defeated by Mularaja of Anhilwara and suffered heavy losses in 1178 AD.
- In AD 1182 The whole Sindh was subdued and The next object of Mohammad Ghori attention was Lahore then ruled by Khusrau Malik, Who was the last prince of the house of Ghazni. He captured Lahore, deposed Khusrau Malik, and annexed the Punjab to his dominions. The Muslim rivals have disposed of Mohammad Ghur next turned to the conquest of the Hindu kingdoms.
- In 1178–79 AD Muhammad Ghori was defeat by The Bhima II near the Abu mountains when he try to enter in India through Gujarat. Bhima II was brother of Chalukya king Mularaja, in the battle of Neharwala. He again tried his luck in AD 1191 but Chahman Ruler of Ajmer Prithviraj III Canfronted him. Prithviraj Chauhan defeated the invading army at Tarain near Thaneshwar in 1191 AD. But In second battle of Tarain (1192 AD ) Prithviraj Chauahn defeated, captured and killed. Mohammad followed up his success by conquering Ajmer.
- He then returned to Ghazni leaving the conduct of the Indian campaigns to his trusted slave, Qutb-ud-din Aibak captured Delhi, Meerut, Ranthambore and Koil in AD 1193, and then advanced towards Benaras the Sultan in the meantime returned from Ghazni and defeated Raja Jaichandra (or Jaichand) of Kannauj in the Battle of Chandwar.
- Gwalior fell in AD 1196 and next fell Anhilwara. Bakhtiyar Khalji one of Ghori’s commanders annexed Bihar and Bengal and destroyed Nalanda and Vikramshila University. With the reduction of Kalanjar in AD 1203, the conquest of upper India was complete by the time of Mohammad’s assassination in AD 1206.
Causes for the Defeat of Indian Rulers by the Turks
- Disunity among the rulers,
- Neglect of the frontiers,
- Absence of political insight.
- Absence of powerful central authority,
- Hinduism’s emphasis on fragmentation of society as against Islam which preached brotherhood among all-low or high.
- Invaders’ Spirit of jihad meaning a crusade to protect and spread Islam,
- Fragmented Hindu religion with many sects as against unitary Islam.
- Absence of appropriate military organisation
- Absence of military leadership,
- Defensive attitude of Indian rulers at war,
- Overdependence of Indian rulers on elephants and swords against Turks use of superior horses, armoured horsemen, and mounted archers.
Arab Conquest Of Sindh History Of India, Arab Conquest Of Sindh History Of India