JAINISM In India | India History | Ancient History |

JAINISM In India | India History | Ancient History |-Jainism traditionally known as Jain Dharma, is an ancient Indian religion and a major world religious group. It traces its spiritual ideas and history through a succession of twenty-four leaders or Tirthankara’s, with the first in the current time cycle being Rishabhanatha, whom the tradition holds to have lived millions of years ago; the twenty-third tirthankara Parshvanatha, whom historians date to 9th century BCE; and the twenty-fourth tirthankara, Mahavira around 600 BCE. Jainism is considered to be an eternal dharma with the Tirthankara’s guiding every time cycle of the cosmology.

Jainism Origin, Beliefs, Symbols And Definition

  • Jainism is considered one of the ancient religions of India. According to Jain texts, this religion has been believed since time immemorial, although it seems to have spread on a large scale in the public mind after Mahavir Swami.
  • The word Jain is believed to be derived from the word ‘Jin’ which means conqueror. The word ‘Jin’ is derived from the root ‘Ji’ which means to win.
  • The tradition of this religion has reached its present form through the means of Tirthankaras. There were 24 Tirthankaras in Jainism.
  • the first was Rishabhdev and the last was Mahavir Swami. Rishabhdev is considered even the father of King Bharata, proving the antiquity of this religion.
  • Jainism has also been rich in its literary side which confirms its antiquity. This religion strictly believes in the principle of ‘non-violence’.
  • There are two main sects of this religion – ‘Digambar’ and ‘Svetambar’. The religious place of Jains is called Jinalaya.

Reason for the rise of Jainism

Although Jainism is considered one of the ancient religions, but as we said above, this religion emerged after Mahavir Swami. There were many reasons for this. Many political, social, economic and religious changes took place during this period. All these changes should be the reason for the rise of this religion. Some of the main reasons are as follows.

  • In the 6th century BC, many religious fanatics were being spread by the Brahmins. By the time of this time, the things mentioned in the Rigveda etc. were being used for their own benefit by twisting them.
  • At this time 16 Mahajanapadas were born. Therefore, the Kshatriya varnas involved in the power struggle may have reached the top of power, but still their position was seen below that of the Brahmins. Thus socially a gulf was beginning to form in the society. The Kshatriyas also opposed the caste system. If we look at Mahavir Swami and his contemporary Buddha also, he was also a Kshatriya.
  • The Vaishya varna had also become quite widespread by this time. Despite being more financially prosperous, the place of Vaishyas was only at third place below Brahmins and Kshatriyas. Also, some part of the property was taken by the Brahmins in the name of rituals, rituals etc. In this way some kind of dissatisfaction was definitely prevailing in this class also. Due to the lack of such tendency of this religion, it was also patronized and promoted by the Vaishyas.
  • The position of Shudra Varna was deteriorating day by day with the changing narrative of Vedas. While the Rigveda had accepted the importance of all the varnas equally, their condition had worsened by this period.
  • There was dissatisfaction amongst a section which belonged to the farmers due to the sacrificial system. Cows etc. were sacrificed during this time. In course of time the cow and the bull became a commercially beneficial animal along with purity, The farmers wanted a system in which there was no animal sacrifice.
  • Now if we look at the global situation, at that time there was the rise of Confucius in China, Zarathusta in Iran and Pythagoras in Greece. Therefore, new ideas were being awakened in different countries of the world. Since India was associated with these countries through trade etc. since ancient times, India did not remain under its influence, as a result of which an attempt was made to establish a new ideal by dropping the orthodox traditions.

Tirthankaras of Jainism :-

Names and symbols of 24 Tirthankaras

  1. Shri Rishabhnath- Bull
  2. Shri Ajitnath- Elephant
  3. Shri Sambhavnath- Horse (Horse)
  4. Shri Abhinandannath- Monkey
  5. Shri Sumatinath- Chakwa
  6. Sri Padmaprabha- Lotus
  7. Shri Suparshvanath- Saathiya (Swastika)
  8. Shri Chandraprabh- Moon
  9. Shri Pushpadanta- Magar
  10. Shri Sheetalnath- Kalpavriksha
  11. Shri Shreyansnath- Rhinoceros
  12. Shri Vasupujya- Buffalo
  13. Shri Vimalnath- Pig
  14. Shri Anantnath- Sehi
  15. Shri Dharmanath- Vajradand,
  16. Shri Shantinath- Deer
  17. Sri Kunthunath- Goat
  18. Shri Arhanath- Fish
  19. Shri Mallinath- Kalash
  20. Sri Munisruvratnath- Kachhap (Turtle)
  21. Shri Naminath- Neelkamal
  22. Shree Neminath- Conch
  23. Shri Parshvanath- Serpent
  24. Shri Mahavir- Singh

Stages Of Mahaveer Swami’s Life

First Stage Of Mahaveer Swami’s Life

  • Mahavira was born in Jainism in 540 BC in a village called Kundagram near Vaishali in Bihar.
  • Mahavir’s father’s name was Siddhartha.
  • And, he was the head of the Jnathrika Kshatriya dynasty under Vajji of Vaishali.
  • And, the name of Mahavira’s mother was Trishala.
  • And, she was the sister of Raja Chetak of Vaishali.

Second Stage Of Mahaveer Swami’s Life

  • Mahavir Jav attained the age of attainment, and he was married to a girl named Yashoda.
  • And, Yashoda was the daughter of Samaraweera king.
  • Mahavir had a daughter in the suit.
  • Whose name was Annoja Priyadarshini.
  • Mahavir’s daughter was married to a person named Jamali.
  • And, in the case Jamali was a disciple of Mahavira.

Third Stage Of Mahaveer Swami’s Life

  • Mahavira was thirty years old when his parents died.
  • Because of that Mahavir had abandoned your family.
  • Because Mahavira’s aim was to become an ascetic in life and move forward in search of truth.
  • Mahavir Tirthankar was with Makkhali Gaushala at that time.
  • But later due to some difference Mahavir left the cowshed.
  • And, Mahavira founded the Ajivika sect.

And, at the age of forty-two, Mahavira had attained Kaivalya, under a sal tree at Jambhikagrama on the banks of the Rizupalika river, This is also called the attainment of ultimate knowledge, Hence they came to be called Kevalin, Jeena or Jitendriya, Nrigarantha, Arhant and Mahavira. In this, Kevalin means perfect learned. Jeena or Jitendriya means one who has conquered his senses. And, Nrigarantha means free from all bondage. And, the meaning of Arhant became blessed. Apart from this the important name Mahavira means brave. And, the followers of Mahavira were named Jains. Mahavira gave his first sermon at Pava. In which eleven of his own disciples were involved. Agnibhuti, Vayubhuti, Akampita, Arya Person, Sudharman, Manditaputra, Mauryaputra, Akalabhrata, Ulka and Prabhasa. And, these disciples are known as eleven Gandharas.

There are three gems in Jainism

Right faith, right birth and right action.
1. Right faith is the faith of the Tirthankaras.
2. And, right birth has been called the knowledge of the cult of knowledge.
3. And, samyak karma is the practice of the five vows of Jainism.

Mahaveer is usually depicted in a sitting or standing meditation posture. In which there is a symbol of a lion below them. His earliest images are from archaeological sites in the north Indian city of Mathura. And, from the 1st century BC to the 2nd century AD. His birth is celebrated as Mahavir Janma Kalyanak.
And his Nirvana is celebrated by Jains as Diwali. There were some rulers who believed in Jainism in North India, who were followers of Jainism. In the Haryanka dynasty, rulers like Bimbisara, Ajatashatru, Nandas and Udayin were followers of Jainism. And, in South India, the Kadamba dynasty and the Ganga dynasty were the patrons of Jainism. And, the Chalukya and Solanki dynasty were the last patrons of Jainism.

Jain Councils

  • First Council – First Jain Council was held at Patliputra under the chairmanship of Sthulabhadra in 300 B.C. It resulted in the compilation of 12 Angas replacing the lost 14 Purvas.
  • Second Council – Second Jain Council was held at Vallabhi under the chairmainship of Devardhi in 521 A.D. It resulted in the final compilation of 12 Angas and 12 Upangas.

Some Important Questions Of Jainism

S.N.QUESTIONANSWER
1What was the name of Mahavir Swami’s wife?Yashoda
2Whom did Jainism consider as the head?Karma
3What was the name of Mahavir Swami’s mother?Trishala
4What is the meaning of Shvetambara?Who wore white cloths
5In which city of Bihar state is the famous Jaini Jal Mandir located?Pavapuri
6What was the insignia of Parshvanath?Snake
7Who was the 24th and last Tirthankara of Jainism?Mahaveer Swami
8In which book is the compilation of religious teachings of Mahavira?Purva Book
9What was the name of Mahavir Swami’s father?Siddhartha
10What was the childhood name of Mahavir Swami?Vardhman
11What was the name of the elder brother of Mahavir Swami?Nandivardhan
12Where did Mahavir Swami died?Rajgrah (Nalanda District)
13On the banks of which river did Mahavir Swami attain knowledge?Rijupalika
14Who was the 23rd Tirthankara of Jainism?Pashrwanath
15In which language did Mahavira deliver his sermon?Prakrat
16Where is Dilwara Temple located?Mount Abu
17Parshvanath was the son of which king?Ashwasen
18What is Jain literature called?Aagam
19Which was given the most emphasis in Jainism?Ahinsa
20Jainism was spread the most among which classes?Business Class
21Who were the kings who believed in Jainism?Chandragupta Maurya,
Kaling Naresh Kharwel
Chandel Shashak
Vand Raja
Raja Amoghvarsh
22When and where was Mahavir born?540 B.C Vaihali Kundagram
23Chandragupta Maurya took inspiration from whom and adopted Jainism?Bhadrabahu
24What was the name of Mahavir’s mother?Trishala
25After the death of Mahavir Jainism was divided into how many parts?2 ( Shvetambar, Digambar )
26Whom did Mahavira make the head of the Jain Sangh after attaining salvation?Sudharman
27Into how many Gandhars did Mahavira divide his disciple?11
28What inspired the spiritual ideas of Jainism?Sankhya Darshan
29What was the name of Mahavir’s son-in-law.Jamali
30Name of that tree below mahaveer get gyan? Saal Tree
JAINISM In India | India History | Ancient History |
JAINISM In India

JAINISM In India | India History | Ancient History | JAINISM In India | India History | Ancient History |

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