The Imperial Cholas/Dynasties Of Kashmir History-In this article we published the detailed history about the Imperial Cholas/ruled Dynasty of southern India, In this we will cover the rulers of these dynasties and Important places associated with Chola Administration and Important question from the Cholas and The ruling dynasties of Kashmir. The Imperial Cholas/Dynasties Of Kashmir History
The Imperial Cholas
The emergence of Chola power from obscurity, its rise to an imperial position and its conflicts, first with the Rashtrakutas from beyond the Tungabhadra and later with their successors, the Chalukyas of Kalyani, form the dominant features of the history of South India in the period AD 850-1200. The whole region South of the Tungabhadra was united and held as one State for a period of two centuries or more.
|❖The founder of the Chola Empire was Vijayalaya, who was at first a feudatory of the Pallavas. He captured Tanjore in AD 850.|
❖By the end of the 9th Century, Vijayalaya successor, Aditya I Chola, wiped out the Pallavas of Kanchi and weakened the Pandyas, thus bringing the Southern Tamil country under his control.
Chola power rapidly rose, Parantaka I (907-955) who captured Madurai but was defeated by the Rashtrakuta ruler, Krishna III, at the battle of Takkolam. But his grandson, Sundara-Chola, overcame the Rashtrakuta ruler.
Rajaraja (AD 985-1014)
The greatest Chola rulers were Rajaraja and his son, Rajendra I. Rajaraja destroyed the Chera navy, captured the Pandyan capital Madurai, and also annexed the Northern part of Sri Lanka. One of his naval exploits was the conquest of the Maldive Islands. In the North, he annexed the North-Western parts of the Ganga region in North-West Karnataka and overran Vengi.
Rajaraja I (AD 1014-1044)
- His son and successor, Rajendra I, continued with the annexationist policy by completely overrunning the Pandya and Chera kingdoms and including them in his empire. He also annexed the rest of Sri Lanka which remained under Chola rule for another 50 years. & defeated King of Sumatra and annexed a portion of Sumatra. He Indianised several islands of South-East Asia. and established cordial relationship with King of China.
- Rajendra I also sent an expedition against Bengal through Kalinga, His armies crossed the Ganga and defeated the Pala King, Mahipala, of Bengal and Bihar. In commemoration of his victories in the Gangetic delta, he assumed the title Gangaikonda, and founded a capital-Gangaikonda Cholapuram.
- The Chola rulers fought constantly with the later Chalukyas (of Kalyani), who had succeeded the Rashtrakutas in the Deccan, for the over lordship of Vengi, the Tungabhadra doab and the Ganga country in North-West Karnataka.
- By AD 1118, the Chola Empire was confined to the Tamil region and a relatively. small area of the adjoining Telugu districts.
- Kulottunga III (AD 1178-1210) was the last great Chola monarch, who. remained involved in the Pandyan wars of succession and sacked the Pandya capital in 1205.
South India after Cholas
- The Chalukyan Empire disappeared at the end of the 12th Century and the Chola Empire tottered at the beginning of the 13th Century. The place of the Cholas was taken by the Pandyas and the Hoysalas in the South, and that of the later Chalukyas by the Yadavas and the Kakatiyas.
- For a century thereafter, the history of South India is the history of these four kingdoms and their mutual antagonisms.
- Minor powers like the Telugu-Cholas of Nellore played their part as auxiliaries to the chief powers.
- The period was marked by no striking developments in polity or society, although industry, trade and the arts continued to flourish with their normal vigour.
- The Muslim invasions of the Deccan, which began towards the end of the 13th Century upset all the four kingdoms and caused a period of confusion terminated by the rise and expansion of the Bahmani and Vijayanagara kingdoms in the second quarter of the 14th Century.
Important Places Associated with Chola Administration
|Thanjavur (Tanjore)||It was the capital of the Chola Empire, where Brihadeswara temple was constructed by Rajaraja I.|
|Vellur||Parantaka I had defeated the combined army of Pandyas and Sri Lanka here.|
|Anuradhapura||The capital of Sri Lanka during Chola rule, which was destroyed by Rajaraja I.|
|Polannaruva||Rajaraja annexed this Sri Lankan city to his kingdom.|
|Annaimangalam||It was the village, where a Shailendra ruler was permitted to construct a Chudamani Vihara.|
|Gangaikonda- cholapuram||Situated near Kaveripattanam, this city was constructed by Rajendra I after successful completion of his North India campaign.|
|Chidambaram||Chola kings were coronated here.|
|Uttaramerur||Two inscriptions related to Chola administration in the 10th Century have been found here.|
|Nagapattanam||Situated on the Coromandel Coast, Nagapattanam was where the Shailendra ruler had constructed a Vihara during Rajaraja I’s time.|
|Mumadichola mandalam||The name of the new province carved out by Rajaraja from the Sri Lankan territories won by him.|
There is not much information about the history of the Chera Country during AD 850-1200. There are inscriptions of the several kings of the 9th Century of whom Sthanuravi, a contemporary of Aditya I Chola, was the most important, and the Kottayam copper plates are associated with him. He was perhaps succeeded by Vijayaragadeva. Among the kings who followed, Bhaskara Ravivaraman (AD 1047-1106) deserves mention.
The Ruling Dynasties of Kashmir
The Himalayan valley of Kashmir Constituted a part of Mauryan and Kushanas Empires. Three dynasties the Karkota, the Utpala and the Loharas, ruled over Kashmir during the early medieval period. Kashmir was the part of Ashoka’s Empire and Srinagar is said to have been founded by him. The tradition says that Jalok, the son of Asoka, popularized Hindu ideals in Kashmir.
(Starting from AD 630)
The dynasty was founded by Durlabhavardhan, a Kashmiri Brahman. He had friendly relations with Harsha. He gave tooth relic of Buddha to Harsha. Hiuen Tsang spent a few years in his court (AD 631-633). Next great king was Lalitaditya, also known as Muktapida and was the most powerful king. He is said to have ruled from AD 724 to 760. He was called as Mutupi in Chinese chronicles. About the middle of the 9th Century, the power of the Karkotas was supplanted by the Utpalas.
Utpala Dynasty (From AD 850)
The dynasty was founded by Avantivarman (AD 855-883). He was assisted in his politico administrative works by his able Minister Suyya. His court was adorned by two poets, Ratnakara and Anandavardhana. He got constructed new towns and number of irrigation works undertaken during his reign. He got constructed the town of Suryapura (Modern Sopare). It has been named after its Chief Architect Suyya.
Avantivarman also founded the City of Avantipur (Bantipur).
Kingdom of Kashmir after Utpala’s
- The king named Yasakara ruled over Kashmir till AD 948. He was an able ruler and was chosen by an assembly of Brahmins.
- Yasakara was succeeded by his minor son Samgramadeva, who ruled with a regency of ministers.
- Pravaragupta, one of the ministers of Samgramadeva, killed him and usurped the throne. He was succeeded by his unworthy son Kshemagupta, whose queen Didda (daughter of Lohara chief) had a greater say in the management of the affairs of the state.
- After the death of Kshemagupta in AD 958 Didda became the virtual ruler for another fifty years. Didda ruled and established efficient administration as a regent for her son Abhimanyu.
- She was assisted by her loyal Minister Naravahana. Her name appears on the coins of Kashmir. On the eve of Mahmud’s invasion Kashmir was ruled by Didda.
- On her death in AD 1003, her nephew Sangramaraja, son of king Udyaraja of Lohara (in the territory of Poonch) laid the foundation of a new dynasty, known after Lohara.
Rise of Lohara Dynasty (AD 1003)
The dynasty founded by Sangramaraja. Ananta succeeded to the throne in AD 1028. He was assisted by his Queen Suryamati. The next important Lohar king was Harsha (brother of Kalasa). He employed Turushakas which refers to Muslim Military Generals. Harsha retrieved the lost glory of Kashmir by his able administration and patronage of culture and learning and art. He was also the leader of social reforms. After Harsha’s death, Kashmir faced a quick succession of weak Lohara rulers and finally the dynasty ended in AD 1172.
Jai Singh was the last king of the dynasty, which finds mention in Kalhana’s Rajatarangini.
The Kingdom of Kashmir after Lohara
- After Lohara’s the kingdom of Kashmir was effected by civil war, anarchy and Muslim invasions.
- Rinchana, a Tibetan chief became the king of Kashmir in AD 1320. He was preceded by King Suhadeva (AD 1301-20), whose daughter Kotadevi he married. With the death of Rinchana, the kingdom declined. The Hindu rule in Kashmir was finally ended in AD 1339 and the Muslim rule began.
- First Muslim dynasty was founded by Shams-ud-din under the title of Shah Mir Dynasty.
- Sikandar Shah of this dynasty was great iconoclast i.e., image breaker known as Butshikan. He is said to have destroyed the famous temple of Martand.
| ❖ Zain-ul-Abidin was called Budshah i.e., great king, because of his liberal approach. He was great patron of scholars and got Mahabharata and Rajatarangini translated into Persian.|
❖ He got constructed an artificial island in the Wular lake called Zainlanka and is said to have borrowed the art of paper making and book binding from Samarkand.
The greatest king of this dynasty was Shahi Khan who assumed the title of Zainul-Abidin. He was a liberal king and is known as the Akbar of Kashmir. He reversed the orthodox policy of Sikandar Shah and also removed taxation on cremation as well as ban on Sati. After Shahmiri Dynasty Kashmiri Chaks founded new dynasty in AD 1561 and they ruled till Kashmir was annexed to the Mughal Empire by Akbar in AD 1588.
Important Question From Cholas Dynasty
- What was the meeting of merchants called? – Nagaram
- Whose title did Vijayalaya assumed? – Narkesari
- Where was the capital of Vijayalaya? – Tanjore
- Rajaraja I was a follower of which religion? – Shaivism
- Whose son was Rajaraja? – Parantaka II
- What was the land given to the monasteries called? – Padapur
- What was the local assembly of the city called? – Nagartar
- Who built the Shiva temple of Brihadeshwar in Tanjore? – Rajaraja I
- What was the unit of land-measurement of the Cholas? – Vale
- Who established the independent kingdom of the Cholas? – Aditya I
- Who got the huge pond named Cholangangam built? – Rajendra I
- What was the province called during the Chola period? – Mandalam
- What was the name of the most organized part of the army in the Chola Empire? – Army
- Into how many provinces was the Chola Empire divided? – 6
- In whose reign did the maximum expansion of the Chola Empire take place? – Rajendra I
- Who founded the Chola dynasty? – Vijayalaya
- Who was the first great powerful ruler of the Chola dynasty? – Rajaraja I
- Who was the last ruler of the Chola dynasty? – Rajendra II
- What were the high officials of the Chola administration called? – Perundaram
- What was the gold coin called during the Chola period? – Kashu
- What were the worshipers of Shiva called during the Chola period? – Nayanar saint
- What were the worshipers of Vishnu called during the Chola period? – Alwar
- What was the name of the most important port of the tenth century during the Chola period? – Kaveripatnam
- What were the untouchables called during this period? – Pariah
The Imperial Cholas/Dynasties Of Kashmir History The Imperial Cholas/Dynasties Of Kashmir History