The Satavahana Dynasty History In Details-In this article we published the detailed history of Satavahana dynasty and important questions and facts related to this dynasty.
The Satavahana Dynasty
The Satavahanas appeared as the successors of Mauryas in Deccan. The Puranas list thirty kings of the dynasty ruling for over 460 years. The Satavahanas were known as Andhras, Andhrajatiyah and Andhrabhrityas in the Puranic list. Some Historians suggest their place of origin in Maharashtra. Two inscription of the Satavahanas, Nanaghat and Nasik have been discovered in Maharashtra.
The most interesting details about the Satavahanas relates to their family structure. It was customary for their king to be named after his mother. Such names as Gautamiputra and Vasisthiputra indicate that in their society, mother enjoyed a great deal of importance.
Political History (Rulers)
- Simuka was the founder of this dynasty. He was the immediate successor of Ashoka and there are references that he built many Buddhist and Jaina temples. After a reign of 23 years, he was assassinated and succeeded by his brother Kanha.
- Kanha was the second ruler of this dynasty who ruled between 207-189 BC, as confirmed by Nasik inscription.
- Satkarni I was the son of Simuka. He married Naganika and took the title of Dakshina Pathapati and Aparatihata Chakra. Naganika’s Nasik inscriptions describe about his achievements.
- Sri Satkarni I performed two Ashvamedha and one Rajsuya sacrifice.
- Sri Satkarni II ruled for 56 years. He was the 6th ruler of this dynasty,
- Hala was the 17th ruler of this dynasty. His reign of five years (AD 20-25) was a period of great prosperity. He himself composed Gathasaptasati on anthology of 700 erotic verses in Maharashtri or Paisachi Prakrit.
- Gautami Putra Satkarni (AD 80-104) was the greatest ruler of this dynasty. He revived the Satavahana power. He is also called as Ekabrahmana. His achievements are recorded in the Nasik Prasasti by his mother Gautami Balasri. By defeating Nahpana, he rooted out Saka Satrapas and recovered all the lost territories. Coins found from Jogalthambi indicate about his victory over Nahpana.
- Vasishtiputra Pulamayi (AD 130-154) ruled for 24 years. His coins have been found in Godavari and Guntur districts. Pulamayi’s reference is found in the largest number of Satvahana inscriptions. The old Stupa at Amaravati was repaired and enlarged.
- Yajna Shri Satkarni (AD 170-194) was the last great king of this dynasty to have control over the two seas.
- The last Satavahana was Pulamayi IV. ( The Satavahana Empire was divided among five minor dynasties. The Northern province was under the control of a collateral branch of Satavahanas in the West around Nashik Abhinas established themselves, Eastern region came under the sway of Ikshavakus, the South-Eastern tracts were ruled by the Pallavas.)
Administration Of Satavahana
The Satavahana kingdom was divided into Janapadas which were further sub-divided into Aharas. Each Ahara was under an Amatya. The basic unit of Ahara was Grama with the village headman called the Gamika. The Satavahana administration was simple, certain military and feudal elements in the administration of Satavahanas formed an important part of the administration. The Satavahana kingdom had three grades of feudatories. The highest grade was formed by the king who was called Raja and who had the right to mint coins. The second grade was formed by Mahabhoja and the third grade by Senapti.
The Satavahana rulers were Brahmans and they represented the march of triumphant Brahmanism. They worshipped a large number of Vaishnava Gods such as Krishna, Vasudeva and others. However, the Satavahana rulers also promoted Buddhism by granting land to the monks.
Art And Architecture Of Satavahana
In the Satavahana phase, many temples and monasteries were cut out of the solid rock in the North Western Deccan or Maharashtra with great skill. The common structures were the temple which was called Chaitya and the monastery which was called Vihar Stupa of Amravati and Chaitya of Karle are most important.
The Chaitya was a large hall with a number of columns, and the Vihara consisted of a Central hall entered by a doorway from a Varandah in front. The Viharas or Monasteries were excavated near the Chaityas for the residence of Monks in the rainy season most of the coins of Satavahanas are of lead.
Chedi Dynasty of Kalinga
The Dynasty rose to prominence in the middle of the 1st Century BC under Kharavela, whose achievements are given in detail in the Hathigumpha Inscription. Kharvela was a follower of Jainism and he patronised this religion.
- Their captial was Kalinganagara.
- The first known king of this dynasty was Mahameghavarmana.
- The greatest and the most powerful king of the dynasty was Kharvela, the descendent of the Mahameghavarmana. His capital was Kalinganagara.
- The only source of information about the king Kharvela is the Hathigumpha inscription written in Prakrit language and Brahmi script.
- The inscription has seventeen lines out of which only four are legible which records the first thirteen years of the reign of Kharvela.
- In the fifth year of his reign, Kharvela extended the old canal constructed by the Nandas from Tanasuli to Kalinganagar.
- Kharvela is said to have defeated Bahasapatimitra, captured the fortress of Garathgiri and recovered an image of a Jaina Saint from Magadha, which had been previously carried away from Kalinga by Mahapadma Nanda. He is also credited with the construction of a magnificent temple at Bhubaneshwar.
- In the ninth year of his reign Kharvela built Mahavijaya Prasad (place of Great Victory) on both the banks of the River Prachi, in order to commemorate his victories in the North.
Important Questions Related To Satavahana Dynasty
|1||Who killed Susharma?||Shimuk|
|2||Who was Shimuk?||Susharma’s commander|
|3||Who established the Satavahana dynasty on Magadha?||Shimuk|
|4||Which dynasty is known as Andhra dynasty?||Satavahana dynasty|
|5||Where did the rulers of the Satavahana dynasty established their capital?||establishment|
|6||In which state of India is the establishment located?||Andhra Pradesh|
|7||In the Puranas, what is the Satavahana dynasty called?||Andhra Bhutya|
|8||What is the name of Shimuk, the founder of the Satavahana dynasty?||Indus|
|9||Who is considered the most powerful king of the Satavahana dynasty?||Gautamiputra Satakarni|
|10||Who is called the ‘Lord of the West’?||Gautamiputra Satakarni|
|11||What was the language of the Satavahana period?||Prakrit|
|12||What was the script of the Satavahana dynasty?||Brahmi script|
|13||Who was the famous poet and litterateur of the Satavahana period?||Recent and multiplier|
|14||Who wrote Hal?||Saga seventy|
|15||Who wrote Gunadhyay?||Great story fund|
|16||For how many years did the rulers of the Satavahanas ruled?||460 years|
|17||What was the chief officer of Ahar called?||Amach|
|18||In which parts was the Satavahana Empire divided from the point of view of governance?||Janpad, Ahar and Village|
The Satavahana Dynasty History In Details
The Satavahana Dynasty History In Details