The Khilji Dynasty | Khilji Vansh Detailed History-The Khiljis were probably of Turkish origin but had become Afghan in character. Some important Khilji rulers are
Jalal-ud-din Khilji (AD 1290-1296)
Jalal-ud-din was the founder and first king of the Khilji Dynasty. He followed mild and generous policies.
In 1294, Ala-ud-din Khilji, a nephew of Jalal-ud-din, invaded Ramachandra Dev, the ruler of Devagiri in South. Ramachandra Dev was defeat and Ala-ud-din returned with an immense booty. Jalal-ud-din himself advanced to Kara to give warm welcome to his nephew, who got him treacherously murder and himself usurped the throne in 1296.
Ala-ud-din Khilji (AD 1296-1316)
Ala-ud-din Khilji ascend the throne after getting his uncle Jalal-ud-din murder. He was the first Sultan of Delhi, who separated religion from politics. He proclaimed-Kingship knows no kinship.
Ala-ud-din Khilji’s Imperial Conquests
|1297-99||Raja Karnadeva of Gujarat (AD 1928) was defeated||Gujarat was a fertile and populous province with access to Western sea-ports. Horses could be secured from West Asia, Malik Kafur, a slave was bought by Ala-ud-din Khilji in Gujarat. On the way to Delhi from Gujarat, the Mongols rebelled and were massacred ruthlessly.|
|1299-1301||Hamir Deva of Ranthambore (AD 1301) was defeated and killed. Treachery of Ranmal, a prominent noble contributed to Hamir Deva’s defeat.||Hamir Deva gave patronage to some Mongols (AD 1301) was defeated and and did not expel them in spite of Ala-ud-din’s killed. Treachery of Ranmal, a t requests, Amir Khusrau, the poet accompanied prominent noble contributed to Ala-ud-din. In this sloge and described in graphic detail, the first description of Jauhar of Rajput women in Persian.|
|1301-1303||Rana Ratan Singh Of Chittor (AD 1305) defeated.||Chittor lay on the trade route from Ajmer to Malwa Chittor was renamed as Khizrabad and was put under Ala-ud-din’s son Khizr Khan.|
|1305||Mahlak Dev and Harnanda Koka of Malwa (AD 1305) were defeated.||The successful general of Ala-ud-din was Ain-ul-mulk Multani.|
|1308||Sheetal dev was defeated and the fortress of Siwana and Solzed.||The successful general of Ala-ud-din was Malik Kamal-ud-din.|
|1311||Kanhar Deva was defeated and fortress of Jalor (AD 1311) was seized.||The successful general of Ala-ud-din was Malik Kamal-ud-din.|
In Deccan, Ala-ud-din’s Army led by Malik Kafur defeated Yadavas of Devagiri, Kakatiyas of Warangal, Hoysalas of Dwarsamudra and Pandyas of Madurai.
Conquest of South India by Malik Kafur, Ala-ud-din’s General
|1307||Ramachandra Dev of Devagirion||The king surrended and was given title of Rai Rayan Malik Kafoor was the General of Khilji Army.|
|1309||Prataprudradev II, the Kakatiya ruler of Warangal||The famous Kohinoor diamond was taken away from Warangal Malik Kafoor was the General of Khilji Army.|
|1310||Vir Ballalla III, the Hoysala ruler of Dwarasamudra|
|1311||Vir Pandya, ruler of Madurai||Materially, the most satisfying expedition Malik Kafoor was the General of Khilji Army.|
- He introduced the first permanent ban standing army of medival India.
- & abolished Iqtas of royal troppers and started payment of their salaries de in cash.
- He introduced Dagh (branding of horses) and Chehra (descriptive role Stof soldier).
- In order to avoid problems created by the nobles, Ala-ud-din issued four important ordinances. The first ordinance, aimed at confiscation of sm in religious endowments and free grants of lands. By the second ordinance, he reorganized the spy system. An army of informers (spies known as Barid and Munhiyan) created and their duty was to spy on all that happened in empire and submit reports to Sultan. The third ordinance prohibited the use of wine. The fourth ordinance issued by Ala-ud-din, laid down that nobles should not have social gatherings and they should not inter-marry without permission.
- Ala-ud-din order that all land to be measure and then the share of state to be fix. The post of special officer called Mustakharaj created for the collection of revenue. The peasants had to pay half the produce as land revenue.
- Ala-ud-din sought to fix cost of all commodities. For this purpose, he set up 3 markets at Delhi. One market for food grains, the second for costly items and third for horses, slaves and cattles. Each market under the control of a high officer called Shahna, who was maintain a register of the merchants and strictly controll the shopkeepers and the prices. The check on market kept by two officers Diwan-e-Riyasat and Shahna-e- Mandi. Malik Kabool appoint as Shehna-e-Mandi, where as Najir Yakaob appointed as Diwan-e-Riyasat. 4. All goods for sale brought to an open market called the Sarai-Adl.
Some Important Facts About Ala-ud-din
- Ala-ud-din adopted a policy similar to that of blood and iron policy of Balban in tackling Mongol menace. The standard unit of measurement of cultivable land to decide land revenue declared as Biswa.
- Ala-ud-din’s land reforms focussed at suppressing intermediaries (Raj, Rana, Rawat Muqaddam, Chaudhari etc) and bringing peasants closer to Government.
- As a result of suppression of Intermediaries at higher level, new set of intermediaries arose at Parjanah or Shiq (district) level and known as Khul.
- Ala-ud-din adopt the policy of befriending his enemies, which later adopted by Akbar.
- Amir Khusrau and Amir Hasn Dehlavi enjoyed his patronage.
- He built Alai Darwaza with perfect horse shoe shaped arch, which was for the first time in India. He also built the palace of thousand pillars called Hazar Situn.
Qutub-ud-din Mubarak Khilji (1316-1320)
He launched an expedition to Devagiri and annexed it to the Delhi Sultanate. He was the only Delhi Sultan to call himself the Caliph.
Fall of the Khilji Dynasty
Gazi Khan Killed The last Khilji dynasty ruler Sultan Khusrau Khan in 1320 , Governor of Dipalpur, when he tried to oppose the rebellion by Gazi Malik. This marked the end of the Khilji Dynasty and the rise of Tughlaq Dynasty at the throne of Delhi.
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