Gurjar Pratihar Dynasty Important History In Details-In this article we published the important history of Gurjar Pratihar Dynasty, read every paragraph carefuuly to know about this dynasty and about it’s ruler.
The Gurjara Pratihara Empire extended from the foothills of the Himalayas to Ujjain in the South and from Gujarat in the West to Mongyr in the East. The Pratiharas were a branch of the famous Gurjara tribe, who came in large numbers to India during the Hunas invasion from Central Asia. Some Rashtrakuta records confirm the association of the Pratiharas with the Gurjarn lineage. The most important testimony is that of Kanarese poet Pampa, who calls Mahipala as Gurjara-raja.
- The Pratiharas (literally means door-keeper) claimed that they were called so because their ancestor Lakshmana served as a door keeper to his brother Lord Rama.
- An inscription found from Jodhpur says that Pratiharas descended from Lakshmana. Similarly Rajashekhara, the dramatist, calls his patron Mahendrapala I, as Raghukulitilaka and Raghugramani.
- However, the modern Historians are of the opinion that the name was derived from one of the kings of the line holding the office of Pratihara (a high dignity) in the Rashtrakuta court.
- There were many branches of Pratiharas, who initially founded various kingdoms in Rajasthan and Gujarat and paved the way for the formation of Gurjaradesa.
- The earliest Pratihara Dynasty was founded by Harichandra, near modern Jodhpur in the middle of AD the 6th Century. The advent of this Gurjara kingdom in the region was not to the liking of Prabhakaravardhann (father of Harsha), the ruler of Thaneshwar and resulted in conflict. The struggle was not decisive, but Banabhata eulogised Prabhakara as a troubler of the sleep of Gurjara.
- The most important Pratihara ruling family was founded by Nagabhatta I, at Malwa with its capital at Ujjain.
- The early history of this branch of Pratihara is preserved in the Gwalior inscription of Bhoja the seventh king of the dynasty. The inscription also mentions that King Nagabhatta defeated a powerful Mlechchha King.
- He was first important ruler of the dynasty. He defended Western India To from Mlechchha king (Arabs) and Boreached upto Broach, bringing this line of Pratihara into prominence in Dthe middle of the AD 8th Century.
- He died in AD 760 and was succeeded by his brother’s son, Kakustha or Kakkuka (i.e., one who always laughs) and Devaraja, both of whom were non entities.
Vatsaraja (AD 775-800)
- He was grand nephew of Nagabhatta I. He was the son and successor of Devaraja. He has been eulogised as a mighty ruler and as distinguished Kshatriya. He was known as Ranahastin Vatsaraja in the famous Jaina work Kuvalayamala (composed
in AD 778).
- He defeated the famous Bhandi clan represented by Indrayudha, who wielded imperial power with the seat of authority at Kannauj.
- He was succeeded by his was son Nagabhatta II, who made Pratiharas the most formidable power of North India.
Nagabhatta II (AD 805-833)
- About AD 816, he defeated and deposed Chakrayudha, Dharmpala’s protege and made Kannauj (Mahodaya) the capital of Pratiharas. The Pala King Dharmapala was defeated at Munghyr.
- The Gwalior inscription, of his grandson, describes the victories of Nagabhatta II. Nagabhatta II is also credited with the victory over Bashar also known as Sultan Vega Varisha (son of Daud, the governor of Sindh under the caliph Al-Mamun). The victory over Arabs has been mentioned Prabhandakosha. The Dholpur inscription of the Chahamana chief, Chandamahasena (842), claims that he was obeyed by the Mlechcha rulers. He tried to revive the fallen fortunes of his family. But he was as unfortunate as his predecessor in suffering defeat at the hands of the Rashtrakuta King, Govinda III. He was succeeded by his son Ramabhadra, who proved to be a weak ruler. During his brief reign of three years the Pratihara power eclipsed owing to the aggressive policy of the Pala Emperor, Devapala.
Mihira Bhoja (AD 836-880)
- He was the son and successor of Ramabhadra and the greatest Pratihara king. With his accession the Pratihara power reached to its celestial point. He re-established the supremacy of his family in Bundelkhand and subjugated the Jodhpur Pratiharas (or Pariharas).
- His extensive kingdom included the areas of Eastern Punjab, most of the Rajputana. the greater part of the present day Uttar Pradesh and the regions of Gwalior.
- The Daulatpura Copper Plate of Bhoja refers to the victories of the king in the Central and Eastern Rajputana. He was defeated by the Pala King Devapala. Mihira Bhoja’s triumphant progress was checked by Rashtrakuta ruler Dhruv II. His defeat in the hands of the Dhruva is recorded in the Bagumra plates. He defeated Rashtrakuta Krishna II on the banks of Narmada and reoccupied Malwa ruled over the vast empire with his capital at Kannauj.
- His achievements find mention in Rajatarangini. He defeated Kalachuri King Kokkalla I. His tutelary deity was Goddess Bhagavati. His coins are known as Adi-Varaha-dramma. He was succeeded by his son Mahendrapala I. He inscribed the famous Gwalior inscription.
- The famous Gwalior inscription is attributed to him.
Mahendrapala I (AD 880-910)
His most notable achievement was the conquest of Magadha and Northern Bengal. Thus, he not only maintained the vast empire intact but even probably extended its boundaries, especially in the east. He was also known as Mahendrayudha Nirbhaya-Narendra or Nirbhaya- Raja.
The famous poet and dramatist, Rajashekhar was his Guru (Teacher). Distinguished works of Rajashekhar are Karpuramanjari, Kavyamimamsa, Bala-Bharata, Bala Ramayana, Bhuvana Kosha and Haravilasa. His two queens were Dehanagadevi and Mahadevi. He was followed by weak rulers like Bhoja II and Mahipala.
- The Arab traveller Al Masudi, who visited India in AD 915-916 refers to the wide extent of the Pratihara Empire and rich resources it’s rulers Possessed. He mentions that the king was rich in horses and camels and maintained four armies in four directions.
- Rashtrakuta Indra III invaded Pratihara Empire conquered Ujjaini and devastated the city of Mahoba (Kannauj).
- Towards the close of his reign Mahipala also faced the invasion of Krishna III Rashtrakuta.
- Mahendrapala II, son and successor of Mahipala was able to maintain the strength of his empire intact. But it received a shattering blow during the reign of Devapala.
- Mahipala is referred to as Maharajadhiraj of Aryavart by Rajashekhara. The process of decline of the empire, which began during Devapala accelerated in the reign of Vijayapala. The empire finally declined by the middle of AD 11th Century.
- Rajyapala succeeded Vijayapala when Mahmud Ghazni invaded India. In AD 1018 when Ghazni invaded Mathura and reached Kannauj, Rajyapala out of fear left the kingdom and fled away.
- The Chandella ruler of Bundelkhand, Ganda or his son Vidyadhara, who tried to check the Mahmud’s forces, killed Rajyapala, for his disgraceful failure to resist Mahmud, in AD 1018 and placed his son Trilochanapala on the throne.
- Yashpala is said to be the last ruler of the line of Pratiharas. His name finds mention in the inscription of the AD 1036.
- On the ruins of the Pratiharas numerous independent kingdoms like Kachhapaghatas of Gwalior, Chalukyas of Anhilwada, and Paramaras of Dhara etc came into being.
Important Questions Related To Gurjar Pratihar
|1||According to Colonel James Tod, Pratihara belonged to which caste?||Shakas|
|2||Gurjar caste was first described in which inscription?||Aihole inscription|
|3||From which foreign description does the information of Mahipal I get?||Alamasudi|
|4||Who introduced the silver coins called “Damma”?||Mahirbhoj|
|5||“Humberpal” is called?||To Mahipal I|
|6||According to Prithviraj Raso, the Pratiharas were originated from?||From the fire pit of Mount Abu|
|7||Most historians are of the opinion that Gurjar?||Originally Indian|
|8||Mahendrapal was the successor of?||Mihirbhoj|
|9||The name of the king of the Gurjara Pratihara dynasty from 730 to 760 was?||Nagabhatta first|
|10||Mahipala I was sitting on the throne around?||913 E|
|11||Mahirabhoja ruled||up to 50 years|
|12||The successor of Mahendrapal was?||Bhoj II|
|13||The Gurjara-Pratiharas had a war with the Rashtrakutas ?||Between 806 and 708|
|14||In an inscription, there is a description of a feudal lord of Nagabhatta, Shankar Gana, participating in the Munger war. This inscription is from?||Chaksu|
|15||After Devraj was seated on the throne-||Vatsaraja|
Gurjar Pratihar Dynasty Important History In Details